Teradata Database 13.0 and later offer a "PROXYUSER" feature that is specified via the SET QUERY_BAND command. It can permit a pooled connection to temporarily impersonate a different database user.
Teradata Database 13.10 and later offer a feature called "Trusted Sessions Enhanced Security" to limit only "Trusted SQL" to use SET QUERY_BAND to set or remove the current proxy user.
Finally, Teradata Database 14.0 offers row-level security.
So the answer to your question is Yes, this is possible with Teradata Database 14.0. You can use the PROXYUSER feature in conjunction with row-level security.